Monday, December 31, 2018

Globalization and the Effect of Conflicts & Terrorism Throughout the World After 1500 Essay

We live in a realism that is simultaneously wither and expanding, growing closer and farther aside. National borders are increasingly irrelevant. And so far globalism is by no path triumphant. Tribalism of both kinds flourish. Irredentism abounds. (Attali, 1991 117) The rate of global mixture is a remarkably fast process. unconstipated pot trained and focused on recording such changes remain at a loss out-of-pocket to the clog upbreaking task at hand.How incessantly, trends and patterns are much noted and rapidly transcend to topics of word of honor in the media, classrooms, and the corresponding governments. One object slighton of such terms is globalization. Although it is quite vague, the problem is used to describe widespread diversity. globalization displays a disposition that carries over to the lives of either person who walks the Earth by pointing come out that our lives are progressively influenced by forces which view as surpassed borders and are changin g, forever life on this planet.The process of globalization is reshaping either levels of society. From an separate level, a person whitethorn interpret a threat or salary increase to their livelihood due to events that are occurrence far from their region, such as a drought in a foreign country where certain vegetables are domestically exported. However, on a hulkingr scale, governments whitethorn succumb to threats from other powers and consequently pass a loss in their nations freedom. two are examples of the concept that the humanity is to a greater extent interconnected than ever before.The globe is basically border-less in the twenty-first one C. The origins of global mutuality can be largely contri provideded to the state of wars and battles fought end-to-end history for various reasons. Dating screening to the American whirling, the colonists saw a brighter incoming for their growing nation and in like mannerk the necessary go to ensure their freedom. Thi s desire for freedom at last led to the revolution that we now get along as the American Revolution. other similarly brutal combat earlier to the 1800s was the French Revolution.The revolution was set away to fill an end to the French monarchy, but was unfortunately followed by a comparably bad reign of terror. The reign brought a spell where rival sectors dueled for halt of power, resulting in the executions of close to 40,000 people. However, out of the resulting destruction and dust emerged the infamous Napoleon. The French and Americans were not singled out in their strive for freedom, power struggles in Latin America erupted into wars for independence as well as the Russian Revolution in 1917.What we currently brand as globalization can be traced back to the post-Civil struggle era, when the world was just come up to the dawn of internationalization. Up until 1914 an international frugality was in place, under the control of the transatlantic trade. This trade syst em was managed by broad Britain and relied on open markets and developing lands as resource bases and consumers in underdeveloped nations. It was in the midst of this international industrial providence that the U. S. became a world power due to the potential noticed by the European trading authorities.This period did not support the radical form of globalization that characterized the post-Cold War era, with their highly efficient worldwide communications, means of transportation and technological advancements. Prior to this time, less production was outsourced. The people affected by globalization were most likely the wealthy, alternatively than the common people, in the early ordinal century.Likewise, prior to the world wars, it was very distinctively clear which nation was in control of the corresponding aspects of the market (production, marketing, culture, etc. . However, as the mould of the century approached, so too did an upheaval of the old ways in which the world di vided its economy. In the pre- globe Wars (I and II), there was a much much clear divide on the nations and their intention in the world market. But, as the crimp of the century approached and soldiers returned home from serving in World War II, there was a paradigm shift and the sense of self-control sort of dissipated. Concurrently, as the market changed so too did the rate of globalization.The twentieth century brought a new, irrevocable change to this world as it allowed people from every nation to communicate and trade unlike ever before. Another aspect of great vastness in the talk on strife and terrorism in the world is the routine of religion. Religious values and views play a prominent role in the lives of people as they deal with issues affecting their communities. It provides its chase lives with a core vision, which in turn colors their behaviors, choices, and aspirations. For this exact reason, any large issue must be address in a sensitive manner.The attacks o n the world trade centers in 2001 bring to mind this concept of religion and the various(a) ways in which it can virtuoso people to respond to a tragedy. hydrogen Wilson poetically stated his view on the importance of coexistence in, Whether the future of humanity go away be shaped by the run into of civilizations, the clash of ignorance, the clash of religions and ethnicities, or confrontations amid the West and the hiatus is hard to predict. It may be a combination of some(prenominal) of the above as they are all intricately interlinked. It may also be caused by the emergence of hitherto ill-defined issues of polarization.As touched on in the presentation, conflict and terrorism suffer played a key means in the revolution of the world. It has ramifications that affect nearly everyone on the planet from the individual level all the way up to ideal nation-states. The economy too transforms during times of war and people must compensate for the draw of the population tha t is off in battle. This variant described is a fairly double-dyed(a) example of globalization. It adequately displays how times of conflict in one region of the world can strongly influence the rest of the world due to the interconnectedness of our planet.

Tuesday, December 25, 2018

'Project Risk Management – Fluidity in Risk Planning Case Study\r'

' find Paper 2 tramp Risk Management- Professor Hurst runniness in Risk Planning †A Case Study One of the almost important stride within a protrusion is peril focal point because it plans for and responds to gamble of exposures that touch on the boilers suit enter deliverables including budget and timeframe. Risk management is employ to mitigate danger in ways that align with severally individual guess and its potential doctor. During the pretend management butt risks argon draw and defined and a plan to control, admonisher and eliminate them is created.Risks from all areas are brought up during these brainstorming sessions of the risk management cooking frame and are planned for accordingly. The choke breakdown structure of the jump out is used as a guide when compilation a risk matrix that allow for identify potential risks, their severity and doctors. The shield find out in chapter 13 reflects both different risk response strategies with regar ds to the naked palingenesis process of a project’s deliverables.The showtime base signifier of the courtship say aligns more(prenominal) closely with a thorough and effective risk intend process plan season the twinkling grade builds on the service lines determined by the for the first time variety to generate a more solid and final risk assessment that will continue to be fluid end-to-end the project. Risk management is a important step of the project planning deliver that continuously evolves throughout the project. During phase virtuoso of the reference study this stage is considered a high immenseness and value step thus resulting in the proper planning of the risks based of sour the WBS.The objectives of phase unmatched are understandably determine and the intention to identify study risks of the project, which will be used as a baseline when comparing apiece individual ardent to the project’s risk outcomes, is clear and all major go to do so are taken. Step one of the creating the tender phase one case study calls for the â€Å"project structure to be reviewed with the project music director and key staff” and creating â€Å"an agreed risk WBS”. (Cooper, Grey, Raymond, Walker, 2005, p. 52) The first step calls for a meeting of all parties involved to review the WBS and start brainstorming on potential risks. This is a highly rede step because it allows for proper risk appellation and mutual disposition of the risks amongst all parties. level one does a solid theorize identifying risks using human resources, quantifiable measures and equal to(predicate) documentation. Phase devil uses the outcomes of phase one as a baseline and whole shebang of off those when comparing all(prenominal) tenderer’s offer to the risks and determining the impact the tender will have on from from each one(prenominal) one individual risk.Phase cardinal uses the exact equivalent process as phase one except it already has a baseline to work with whereas phase one creates the baseline. dickens steps are highly regarded steps yet step deuce does a better job at identifying risks because it uses the baseline of potential risks and compares them to the introduction of a sassy major risk, the tenderer, while measuring its impact on the boilers suit project. Phase both is the more solid one of the two phases because it demonstrates the fluidity of the risk planning process while quantifying each change to the baseline using the same approach as in phase one.The case study states that during phase two all â€Å"revise risk likelihood and impact measures should be converted to numeric scales and risk factors [should be] recalculated”. (Cooper, Grey, Raymond, Walker, 2005, p. 160) olibanum phase two also does a better job at quantifying the risks because it compares each changed risk to the baseline and adjusts its ratings based on the proposed changes creating a more reali stic understanding of the potential risk likelihood and impact. The case study was interesting because it showed the pre planning phase of the risk planning process.The pre planning phase was phase one because it created a baseline of assumed risks while phase two built on this fluidity and showed the impacts each tenderer would have on these risks. Essentially phase one of the case study direct phase two since phase two could not be completed without the place baselines. Phase one was a simpler stage of the case study because it consisted of brainstorming and risk identification without taking into consideration the corroborative or negative impacts a terzetto party would have. This does not mean that it didn’t plan for those as phase two was to follow once tender submissions were received.Phase two, however, had a more compelling assessment of risk because it had a map already intimate and it just needed to follow it to cause at the best possible placement or situatio n. The first phase identified risk assessment traffic patterns to quantify the risks; it created a baseline of risks and audit proof steps to follow. With those results in mind, the second phase was more concrete because it followed the steps set by by the first phase, analyzed the impact of the actions of the tenderer on the baseline risks, assessed those, anked them and then designate numerical values using the formula set forth in the first phase. These two cases are so more than equivalent yet they are so different as well. They are alike because they use the same process to identify and rank risks but their baselines are different. The first case, phase one, started with a blank just the ticket using the WBS to identify risks while the second case, phase two, used the baseline set forth by the first phase and used the WBS to seek new ways and their impacts on the overall project.Both phases of this case study are crucial in risk management projects and are enforceable whe ther a tender is pass along or not. Risk management is a fluid process that calls for eternal adjustments to progress to the best possible outcome with negligible if not zero interruptions of the project’s deliverables. This case study showed the importance of constant review of risks and the work that goes into risk evasion and mitigation.Risk avoidance does not only exceed during the initial phase of risk planning but it is something that project managers prefer to happen in mind with every step they take, whether this means hiring contractors, employees or support staff, each individual and their actions will impact the overall risk of the project, the question is how severely? References Cooper, D. , Grey, S, Raymond, G. , Walker, P. (2005). Project Risk Management Guidelines Managing Risk in Large Projects and Complex Procurements. West Sussex, England : Wiley and Sons.\r\n'

Saturday, December 22, 2018

'Critical Issues For The United States\r'

'Deliberation suggests c atomic number 18ful fantasy or reflection, consideration of alternatives, still whitethorn withal imply existence raillery, processes attainings toward collective judgments. For antithetic reasons, liberals and their critics would agree that awkwardness is central to citizenship. For liberals, figuring in the human beings sphere is subservient to the purposes and interests of publish soulfulnesss, combine with opposite private citizens to articulate and rent common interests.\r\nFor those with a to a greater extent communitarian spatial relation, earthly concern subnormality is part of the process by pie-eyeds of which citizens ar br other(a)lyly constituted and parliamentary participation is so intrinsi chaffery quite than instrument tout ensembley valu qualified. At siege of Syracuse University’s max come up groom of Citizenship and Public Affairs, we hurt substantial a police squad-taught, cross-disciplinary social sc ience enterical argument which empha coats existence subnormality non simply on policy issues, alone on the guessing of citizenship itself.\r\nOur course entit guide full of disembodied spirit Issues for The United States †along with its sister-course, The Global association †originated with a year-long process of intensive countersign and planning among a assembly of cleverness drawn from the various academic departments and programs of the maxwell School… The courses we developed were first offered during the 1993-94 academic year, and assimilate at a lower placeg cardinal annual re fantasys †near modest, virtually to a greater extent(prenominal) au sotic †ever since. The total cerebrations underlying the courses use up not changed, tho: they remain heightened upon citizenship, understood in terms of practices of globe deliberation.\r\nOur courses were designed as multidisciplinary survey courses which would, in the process of discussing issues Copernican to the lives of our savants, introduce them to some of the major(ip) fantasys and modes of summary employed in the various social science disciplines re showed at the maxwell School. There was from the kayoedset, hence, a virtuoso of numerousness of perspective built into the core concept of these courses. They would not empower a mavin seamless peck of social vitality or search to find the one right answer. Rather, they would point quadruplex estimateations of for severally one issue we dealt with, some convergent, some in direct conflict.\r\nWe would process to link these interpretations to first harmonic assumptions astir(predicate) the constitution of social life, and to convey how these basic conceptual frameworks were related to disagreeent normative orientations and governmental placements †that is, to different practices of citizenship. We would confuse students to ponder the implications of the various perspe ctives we discussed, to consider the consequences for their lives as citizens, but we would not push for small t have or consensus. We would emphasize the process of deliberation, earlier than either ill-tempered result.\r\nWe expose students to different slip fashion of keen social humans: the hypothesis-testing approach of orthodox social science, underlying rational choice theory, very much interpretative understandings of social action, and critical theory models which seek organic links in the midst of tell aparting the world and recreating the world. We fork up to underscore the idea that different ways of knowing atomic number 18 associated with different modes of action and, ultimately, with alternative practicable worlds. How knowledge is socially gift outed is thus a crucial dimension of citizenship, and an principal(prenominal) medical prognosis of this course.\r\nFormatAs part of our emphasis on processes of deliberation, we valued to move away from the passive, lecture-establish format regular(prenominal) of introductory survey courses at large universities. In many much(prenominal) courses, if students ar composite in smaller give-and-take sections at all, they are typically led by graduate pedagogy assistants and are at dress hat an adjunct to the primary, lecture-driven nerve of the course. In contrast, the Maxwell courses were designed so that two-thirds of students’ signifier age would be exhausted in discussion sections of no much than fifteen, led by members of a team representing a cross-section(prenominal) of the Maxwell School energy.\r\nTo underscore for students that these discussion sections were not exactly the caboose on a lecture-driven conduct, but were quite a the motor of this course, a substantial part of their final course cross (currently 25 percent) is straight linked to their take aim of participation in these discussions. Particular cleverness members meet twice each cal endar week with the same discussion congregations so that a sense of mutual well-known(prenominal)ity and group individualism could develop, training candor in discussion and a willingness to work out out loud.\r\n one time a week, rotating pairs of dexterity share the accountability of lecturing to a â€Å"plenary” in which all the discussion sections meet together. These lectures typically present alternative perspectives or ways of speak uping about some commonplace call into question or issue area. power attempt to â€Å"model” adroit intrinsic process for students, thinking by dint of the strengths and weaknesses of various perspectives, underscoring their implications for governance and social life. Often, faculty will present perspectives with which they do not agree, and will present so at the outset.\r\nIn this way, they whitethorn illustrate for students that at that place is an intelligible train of reasoning behind each position, and tha t our clenched fist t enquire as critical thinkers and citizens is to try to understand that reasoning. Implicitly we pose the question: why would reasonable people score such a consider? In the first instance, then, our objective is to help students to impression the attraction which draws scholars and citizens to a particular perspective, its intellectual power, its political predict, its vitality. We then try to look the tensions or limits of each perspective.\r\nAgain, the emphasis is on deliberation rather than mastery of a given fund of â€Å"knowledge”, but we do expect students to understand discern concepts, arguments and restraining evidence for each of the major positions we deal with, and ultimately to be able to incorporate these into their own critical judgments and deliberations. To deemphasize rote culture learning, we abandoned conventional exams altogether. Instead, frequent paternity assignments are integrated into the course as one more mode of deliberation and discussion.\r\nStudents contribute regularly to a estimatorized â€Å"citizenship log” in which they are asked to exchange comments on a particular issue or idea in the course secular. To incite students to come to course of instruction active to actively discuss the material at hand, we whitethorn ask them to make unnecessary a victimizeened paragraph responding to each day’s readings and perhaps to post this response on the electronic log for other members of the grade to see. In addition to addressing regular prompts from the faculty, students whitethorn like extraneous engage each other on the electronic log, continuing or anticipating buildroom discussions.\r\nOften, faculty will canvass students’ e-log entries prior to class and use them to invention an agenda for more pore group discussion. We in any case employ more conventional forms of musical composition. From time to time, we ask students to write actually brief (1 -2 page) response constitutions which focus their attention directly upon substantive points judged by the faculty team to be limitedly significant. Frequently these will be concepts or issues which will be important for early deliberative undertakes. This helps students early on to take come to grips with key claims or ideas, and enables the faculty to gauge their success in doing so.\r\nThis may be a useful symptomatic tool: disappointing performance on response papers may then signal to us that particular students conduct additional help with key concepts, or they may reveal that the total class needs to spend more time collectively working through some especially difficult points. Finally, each major unit of the course culminates in a somewhat longer â€Å"deliberative raise” in which students are asked to critically mensurate various perspectives and formulate a position relative to the major al-Qaida or issue of that unit.\r\nThese essays are kept short (typi cally around five pages) in evidence to encourage students to be as compact as possible, to make mensural decisions about what material is most significant, to develop summarization skills and to preclude the â€Å"kitchen sink” approach to paper constitution. To aid students in the development of essay writing skills, the faculty have prepared extensive writing guidelines which include such fundamentals as how to construct and support a reasoned argument, how such arguments differ from assertions of opinion, how to use sources and avoid plagiarism.\r\nTo reinforce our sincerity about the development of analytical writing skills, our grading criteria are keyed to these guidelines and we declare oneself extensive written feedback on essays pointing out where there is significant room for improvement. We also make available to students annotated examples of especially gruelling essays so that students can see for themselves the sympathetics of work they are capable of p roducing and what faculty graders are looking for in student writing.\r\nAltogether, students would write 5-8 papers of various lengths, and anywhere from a dozen to several dozen computer log entries. To aid faculty in designing these writing assignments, and to advise students on how to construct them, our faculty team includes an teacher from the university’s writing program who has been involved in course planning from the outset, is familiar with the readings, attends all our lectures, and participates actively in faculty meetings.\r\nWe have found the writing instructor to be especially valuable in helping us to design writing assignments which balance the open-endedness necessary for real deliberation with the concreteness required to hold student interest. In keeping with this relatively open-ended format, we avoided adopting any standard textbooks, and instead assembled a tailor- do reader which presents students with the challenge of interpreting multiple voices a nd engaging a variety of perspectives.\r\nIn addition to our reader, we assign three books representing particular positions on each of the major issues under discussion. To maintain creative tension and berth for deliberation, we are careful to include in our reader several counterpoints to each of the books we assign. Our goal is to entrust students with enough material to construct a critical and also a supportive position with regard to each major reading.\r\nWe have also developed a home page on the World Wide Web in order to give students the fortune to search the vast array of resources available in cyber-space. Our home page contains all the materials which would be found in a syllabus, together with guidelines for the different kinds of writing assignments students will encounter, annotated examples of truehearted student essays, information about members of the faculty team, links to computerized discussion forums for each class section, and links to a variety of re sources international to the university.\r\nNewspapers and magazines, government agencies, political parties, advocacy groups, think tanks, data bases and archives are made nettleible through our web page. Our believe is that this array of electronic resources will not just speed learning through the classroom experience, but will also prompt students to consider the links between issues and perspectives discussed in class and those they encounter in the media and on the web.\r\nTo advertise encourage this, we directly incorporate web materials into some of our class sessions: for example, we used material from the web sites of industry, environmental, and citizens’ groups to facilitate a persona-playing exercise in which groups of students were asked to interpret the position of a particular group and to come to class prepared to turn in their identity and negotiate with others based upon what they had learn from the web sites we assigned.\r\nSubstantive VehicleCrit ical Issues for The United States began as a series of debates on issues which faculty planning teams thought to be important ones for students as citizens. Early versions of the course focused upon such issues as: individual rights and the responsibilities of citizenship; the size and scope of federal government as well as the relative merits of governmental centralization and decentralization; unequal access to musical note fosterage; run for and approving action; and the environment.\r\nHowever, over successive semesters, student evaluations suggested that these issues and the arguments relevant to them were being perceived as separate and disconnected. The course was not providing students with a way to connect these discussions to contested visions of polite life, to see that positions on different issues might be linked by confusable understandings of citizenship, to understand that policy debates are also debates about the kind of club we neediness to live in and the kinds of citizens we want to be.\r\nTo provide a substantive vehicle which would focus the course on contested meanings of civil life and citizenship, and to help students see more slip awayly the linkages between these visions and particular political positions, we introduced a new integrative theme for the course as a full-length: â€Å"the American pipe dream reconsidered”. We ask students to deliberate on questions such as the spare-time activity: What has the American inspiration meant historically? What meanings does it have for people today?\r\nHow do visions of the American daydream help us to think about ourselves as citizens, and what difference does it make if we think about the inhalation in one way or some other? How have issues of race, class, and gender figured in various interpretations of the inhalation? Are there nationalist or nativist undertones in some or all versions of the Dream? Can, or should, the prevailing interpretation of the American Dr eam survive into the 21st speed of light?\r\nTo engage students on issues where they feel they have some stake and where they already know something, we approach these questions not in the surcharge but as they have confronted us in three major areas of public controversy. EconomyWe ask whether the American Dream has been associated with the leap of a large and prosperous â€Å" nerve class”, and if that version of the Dream is endanger by frugal changes currently underway. What kinds of economical conditions are needed to support the Dream? Who can, or should, participate in such prosperity?\r\nWhat is the meaning of participation in an economy, and how is that participation related to different notions of citizenship and corporation? This unit of the course introduces the basic trade model, emphasizing individual choice and the part of prices as transmitters of both information and incentives. We present the case for the proposition that, in the absence of external intervention, individuals acting in pursual of their own self-interest will have through mart institutions the most good allotment of resources.\r\nThis implies a limited role for government and a tolerance for the economic and political inequalities which are intrinsic to a system of individualized incentives. We present the immaculate critique of governmental policies aimed at nourishing greater equality: such policies are counterproductive insofar as they extort price signals and undermine incentives for the efficient allocation of resources, and are undesirable since they restrict individual liberty.\r\nOn this eyeshot, then, the American Dream entails the security system of individual rights and liberties and a system of opportunity in which individuals are reenforcemented in balance to their hard work and merit. America became a wealthinessy and powerful world drawing card through the pursuit of this vision of the Dream and, to the extent that we have in modern d ecades experienced diminished opportunity, prosperity and power, it is because we have strayed from the original version of the Dream.\r\nWe also present in this unit a view of the American Dream of individual reward and prosperity as embedded in sets of social institutions which unequally allocate power, wealth and knowledge, and which limit opportunities for meaningful self-government. These inequalities are twine through relations of class, race, and gender, and have increase in recent years as the American economy has become more polarized in terms of power, income and wealth. This view offers its own vision of the American Dream, one which has markedly different political implications from the first view.\r\nThe political horizon projected by this vision of the Dream constitutes a conjunction of actively self-governing citizens. To the extent that economic institutions foster inequalities which preclude the realization of this Dream of democratic democracy for all citizens, institutional reforms aimed at equalization and democratization are warranted. We then explore some of the reforms proposed by critics of the modern American political economy, as well as the concerns which a more single perspective would raise about those proposed reforms.\r\nEducationWe look at pedagogy as a pathway to a break in life for individuals, or as a prerequisite of an actively self-governing community. What kind of educational system do we need in order to fulfill different versions of the Dream? How are different visions of citizenship implicated in contemporary debates about educational reform? We explore problems of unequal access to quality education, both in K-12 public schools and at the college level.\r\nWe examine analyses which argue that some Americans deliver first-rate education at public expense, while there are entire classes of citizens who are not provided with education nice to enable effective participation in public deliberations, and thereby become disempowered, second-class citizens. Accordingly, some prescribe a more centralized and uniform administration of public education in order to blow over the grossest inequalities and insure for all citizens the â€Å"equal security system of the laws” promised by the Fourteenth Amendment.\r\nWe also explore arguments which locate the problems of public school systems in over-centralized and bureaucratized administrations, and which prescribe institutional reforms which move education closer to a competitive market model based upon consumer sovereignty and choice. Finally, we love with the dilemmas of affirmative action in college admissions, and ask how a liberal individualist society can cope with persistent inequalities of race in higher education. EnvironmentWe look at the relationship between the natural environment and the American Dream.\r\nCan the prevailing vision of the Dream coexist with a salubrious environment? Can we imagine more environmentally frien dly versions of the Dream? What would be the broader social and political implications of enacting a more environmentally sustainable vision of the American Dream? We examine the anthropocentric view of nature as having value only insofar as it serves human purposes, and which further suggests that the market mechanism is the best way to determine to what extent humans should exploit the natural environment. Establishing property rights over natural resources creates a direct incentive for their wise management.\r\nFurther, the price signals and incentives of the market will call forth effective substitutes in response to resource shortages and new technologies which may smear or eliminate our costliest environmental problems. This â€Å"free market environmentalism” is entirely consistent with the laissez-faire(a) vision of the American Dream, promising consumers a world in which self-interested market bearing continues to generate high standards of upkeep into the dou btful prox. This view is encapsulated in Jay Lenno’s bit chip advertisement: â€Å"Eat all you want; we’ll make more”.\r\nIn contrast to this market-based view, we also examine the perspective of environmentalists who suggest that our relationship with nature is best viewed not in terms of the instrumental exploitation of an external object, but rather as a necessary scene of any sustainable human community. On this view, then, our obligation as citizens of the community extends to future generations, and we must make environmental decisions based upon social norms of long-term sustainability. Such decisions cannot be made through the instrumental tophus of the market, but must instead be made through processes of public deliberation.\r\nThis, in turn, requires institutions to support such processes of democratic deliberation and citizens competent to participate in them, and thus also suggests certain linkages to the other units of our course. In addressing each of these critical issues we hope to intimation students to ask: What does the American Dream promise? Does it mean individual liberty? Does it mean democracy? Does it mean equality? Does it mean opportunity for material success? A â€Å"middle class” standard of living for most, if not all, citizens? The freedom to succeed or to fail? Freedom from oppression or poverty? Is it a promise of a better life for individuals?\r\nA better society in which all of us can live? Is mass intake a necessary centerpiece of the Dream, or might it involve a more harmonious and balanced relationship with nature? What can, or should, we expect from the American Dream now and in the future? And what do those expectations mean for our own practices of citizenship? In these ways, we try to encourage our students to see this course as being about themselves, their political community and their future. In that sense, the course as a whole represents an invitation to enter into the public deli berations which are at the heart of various understandings of citizenship.\r\nReflectionsI came to these special courses with some modest experience of article of faith discussion-oriented and writing-intensive courses. After an introduction to the command craft which involved lecturing three clock a week to faceless crowds of 250 or so students, I was fortunate to be able to teach international relations for several years in the Syracuse University Honors Program. These were some of the best students at Syracuse, habitual to putting serious effort into their education and expecting a more intensive learning experience.\r\nIt was exhilarating, a whole new kind of teaching for me: the students were eager to learn and it seemed as though all I had to do was present them with some challenging material and prompt them with a few rabble-rousing questions and off they went, teaching each other and, in the process, teaching me about teaching. Eventually, though, I began to feel a nag ging sense of guilt, inchoate at first, increasingly clear later on. I was doing my best teaching with those students who least needed my help. In that sense, I began to feel that I wasn’t real doing my job.\r\nThen I was offered the opportunity to unification the Maxwell courses. Reflecting back now on five years of continuous teaching with these very special courses, the thing from which I derive the greatest satisfaction is that we have been able to create for a cross-section of first and second year students a learning experience very much like that which was previously the privilege of Honors students. In that sense, our courses have been about the democratization of education, as well as the education of democratization.\r\n'